Is Veganuary healthy? – Zoë Harcombe

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What the project informs you & what it does not inform you …

Exec recap

* Veganuary was released in the UK in2014 The project motivates individuals throughout the globe to go vegan in January. The vision declaration for Veganuary goes a lot additionally than this: “we want a vegan world.”

* Vegans eat no foods whatsoever that have actually originated from a pet, or for which a pet is considered to have actually been manipulated or hurt whatsoever.

* The top factor provided by individuals for attempting Veganuary was wellness.

* I evaluated the wellness web content of the project internet site: Veganuary.com to review whether Veganuary is a healthy and balanced point to do.

* The solution to the website’s very own concern “Is a vegan diet healthy?” was a quote from the United States Academy of Nourishment and also Dietetics that “a vegan diet is nutritionally adequate.” This is not real. A vegan diet plan is not nutritionally sufficient– it calls for supplements.

* A vegan diet plan does not supply retinol, B12, D3, heme iron or omega-3 in the kinds required by the body. A vegan diet plan is most likely lacking in calcium, iodine, iron and also zinc.

* The wellness details on the Veganuary.com project website did state the relevance of essential nutrients. It seldom cleared up the kind of the nutrient needed by the body (the pet kind) and also the reality that conversion from plant to animal kinds of nutrients is bad, ideally, in any way.

* Referrals to supplement/consume prepared foods (which are simply high calorie supplements) were irregular throughout the internet site, however did consist of vitamin B12, vitamin D, iodine and also iron and also need to have consisted of algae and also possibly calcium and also zinc. Referrals to supplement are admissions of shortages.

* Individuals that do Veganuary will possibly really feel short-term advantage after Xmas extravagances and also since numerous refined foods will certainly require to be prevented. Nevertheless, health issue will certainly arise if individuals do not supplement well to prevent the shortages that exist in a vegan diet plan. Individuals that take place to be bad, or non-converters of plant to animal kinds of nutrients (e.g. carotene to retinol) might locate themselves incapable to maintain a vegan diet plan without major damage.

* A healthy and balanced diet plan offers the nutrients that we require. A healthy and balanced diet plan does not call for supplements. A vegan diet plan calls for supplements. De facto, a vegan diet plan is not healthy and balanced.

Intro

Veganuary was released in the UK in2014 The internet site Veganuary.com claims “Since 2014, Veganuary has inspired and supported more than half a million people in 178 countries to try vegan for January – and beyond.”

This appears safe sufficient– go vegan in January. January is an appropriate month, not even if it helps ‘Veganuary’ however since lots of people consume their body weight in scrap over the vacations and also therefore any type of diet plan will certainly make them really feel much better.

The vision declaration is not so safe. The website proceeds: “Our vision is simple; we want a vegan world.”

A pie graph on the web page of the internet site, Veganuary.com, shared that the factors for taking part in Veganuary were as complies with: 46% offered wellness factors; 34% mentioned pets; 12% mentioned the setting and also 8% offered various other factors.

Considered that wellness was the top factor provided and also considered that that’s our location of rate of interest in this Monday note, allow’s discover whether Veganuary is a healthy and balanced point to do …

A vegan diet plan

A vegan diet plan includes the usage of no foods whatsoever that have actually originated from a pet or for which a pet is considered to have actually been manipulated or hurt whatsoever. That indicates no meat, no fish, no eggs, and also no milk items. It additionally indicates no cochineal (a food colouring originated from beetles); no jelly (a healthy protein that originates from pet collagen); no confectionery polish (a luster that is gathered from trees in which the lac bug lives); no L. Cysteine (a dough conditioner located in some breads and also baked items, which is frequently sourced from plumes or human hair); no honey ( are manipulated); and more. All these non-vegan materials are located in refined foods. Thus you can see that a vegan diet plan has the wellness advantage, from the start, of preventing numerous refined foods. (Many/most vegans take the food style additionally and also reject to use any type of items from pets e.g. natural leather, silk and also woollen.)

Wellness cases

Surprisingly, I really did not see any type of cases on Veganuary.com that going vegan is healthier than complying with an omnivore diet plan (I really did not check out every word of every message, however it’s reasonable to state that wellness cases were not noticeable). Wellness might be the primary factor that individuals join, however the website is significantly concentrated on pet well-being. The wellness details on the website can be located in post. Article were categorised right into 5 teams: pets; setting; food; wellness; and also news release. I concentrated on the wellness messages. There were 72 on the UK website. The United States website had a part of these, so I concentrated on the UK website.

Of the 72 wellness messages, 15 had to do with professional athletes– normally specific (normally amateur) professional athletes that composed a message concerning the reality that they were vegan, and also it had not been a trouble for their selected sporting activity. 8 messages were talk about researches or story e.g. “One in three Brits reducing meat in diet.” 8 messages had to do with meals/eating suggestions e.g. “How to grow herbs for a nutritious addition to mealtimes.” 9 were arbitrary inquiries and also solutions e.g. “My 80-year-old granddad has eaten meat and dairy his whole life – doesn’t that show it’s healthy?” 6 had to do with particular problems e.g. Kind 2 diabetic issues. 5 I categorised as various other e.g. “Angelina Jolie’s breast surgeon says meat grows cancer.” Lastly, 21 had to do with nourishment. Those are the ones to concentrate on.

On behalf of my monitoring concerning the absence of wellness cases on Veganuary.com, much of the health/nutrition messages were protective– responding to typical problems concerning a vegan diet plan e.g. “Is a vegan diet dangerous for children?” “How to get enough protein as a vegan.” “Is it safe to be vegan while pregnant?” “Don’t vegans need to take several supplements to stay healthy?” and also “Is a vegan diet healthy?”

The solution to the last concern existed as a quote from the United States Academy of Nourishment and also Dietetics: “All the major dietetics societies have published papers stating that a vegan diet is nutritionally adequate for all stages of human health”.

I attended to the unsafe mistakes in the Academy of Nourishment and also Dietetics’ ideas right here (Ref 1). The American Academy for Nourishment and also Dietetics (AND) confesses that a vegan diet plan is not risk-free by providing the nutrients that require to be taken as stronghold and also supplements. If a vegan diet plan were risk-free in itself, it would certainly supply all nutrients needed forever and also wellness. Regardless of this, “nutritionally adequate”, albeit incorrect, would certainly still barely be a health and wellness insurance claim.

Most Of the various other messages had to do with specific nutrients, which are of issue in a vegan diet plan: vitamin A; vitamin B12; vitamin D; iodine; iron; omega-3; healthy protein; selenium; and also zinc. Allow’s undergo these to see what was claimed and also what had not been.

Vitamin A

The whole vitamin An article is as complies with: “Vitamin A is vital to human wellness. It is fantastic for our vision, our body immune system and also bone development (their ref– Ref 2). Our bodies transform beta-carotene to Vitamin A. This indicates that great resources of Vitamin A are veggies that are high in beta-carotene– carrots, butternut squash, pleasant potatoes, pumpkin, spinach, melon, mango, apricots, and also kale– so consume a few of these each day! (Ref 3).

That is not the entire reality. The message ought to state “our bodies CAN convert beta-carotene to retinol, which is the form in which we need vitamin A, but conversion is poor, if it happens at all.”

Vitamin A can be found in 2 kinds– carotene originates from plants and also retinol originates from pet foods. Retinol is the kind of vitamin A that the body requires. Carotene can be transformed to retinol by the body however despite Beta-carotene, the carotene most conveniently exchanged retinol, there is considerable loss such that the conversion proportion was long held to go to ideal 6:1 (Ref 4). This has actually because been modified to 12:1 (Ref 5). Additionally, not everyone can transforming carotene to retinol “Diabetics and those with poor thyroid function cannot make the conversion. Children make the conversion very poorly and infants not at all” (Ref 6). Lastly, carotenes are transformed by the activity of bile salts and also really little bile gets to the intestinal tract when a dish is reduced in fat. Our grandparents place butter on their veggies completely factor. Pet food normally, and also liver especially, is the very best resource of the vitamin A that we require.

Vitamin B12

The post on B12 confesses that B12 is “the biggie (and probably the most controversial)” however includes “It need not be.” The message advises “Ensure that you get a reliable source of vitamin B12 through fortified foods (eat at least two a day at different meals) or cyanocobalamin supplements” (Ref 7).

That’s a truthful admission that a vegan diet plan is nutritionally lacking. A vegan diet plan does not supply B12 and also therefore it need to be acquired either from supplements or from strengthened foods (think about prepared foods as high calorie supplements).

Vitamin D

The vitamin D blog site ducks the concern of vegan shortage in this nutrient by popularizing the concern. The message records: “Public Health England now recommends that everyone in the UK take a vitamin D supplement in autumn or winter of 10mcg (400 IU) a day.” The message additionally advertises a supplement: “The Vegan society makes a supplement containing 800 IU of vegan vitamin D3 a day (which also contains vitamin B12, iodine and selenium)” (Ref 8).

The message ought to make it clear that vitamin D can be found in 2 kinds: D2 from plants and also D3 from pets. Similar to every nutrient that can be found in both plant and also pet kind, the body desires the animal kind and also conversion from one to the various other is bad, ideally. While it holds true that a vitamin D supplement might be of advantage for individuals unable to sunbathe at any type of certain time, this message disregards to inform individuals that the only nutritional resources of D3 are animal foods– particularly oily fish and also milk items. It is much more most likely that a vegan will certainly lack D3 and also therefore needed to take supplements.

Iodine

The iodine message appropriately sums up the relevance of this nutrient: “Iodine helps make the thyroid hormones, which keep cells and the metabolic rate healthy” (Ref 9). When it comes to obtaining iodine, the message claims: “If you regularly eat seaweed (multiple times a week), you will probably get adequate iodine from the seaweed.” This was complied with by the care: “However, the availability of iodine from seaweed is variable and it can provide too much iodine.”

Considered that individuals do not consume algae numerous times a week, and also considered that this could not be an excellent concept anyhow, the message advises supplements: “75-150 µg every few days.”

That’s an additional admission of nutrient shortage in a vegan diet plan.

Iron

The message appropriately keeps in mind the relevance of this essential nutrient: “Your body needs iron to be healthy and strong. It is needed to make proteins, such as haemoglobin and myoglobin.” The message is additionally truthful concerning plants being an inadequate service provider of iron: “Popeye, however, wasn’t entirely accurate; while spinach does contain iron, it doesn’t have significant amounts of it – just 2.71mg in 100g, in fact!” (Ref 10).

Prepared grains were the leading food suggested for iron consumption for vegans– that’s a high calorie supplement once again and also an admission of most likely shortage in this essential nutrient.

The message shared that the (UK) suggested everyday consumption of iron is 8.7 mg for males matured 19-50 and also 14.8 mg for females of the exact same age. The message really did not share that “The RDAs for vegetarians are 1.8 times higher than for people who eat meat” (resource: United States National Institutes of Wellness) (Ref 11). Which’s for vegetarians– not vegans. That’s since absorption from non-meat and also fish resources is so fairly bad. As well as, similar to calcium and also zinc, phytates in plant-foods significantly harm iron absorption. The message really did not share that it is exceptionally most likely that vegan diet regimens lack iron and also this will certainly be especially major for women of menstrual cycle age.

Omega-3

This is among the longer post in the wellness area and also it has some great little bits and also some poor little bits. Initially it does anxiety that the omega-3 fats that the body demands are EPA and also DHA. It additionally confesses that “there are no dietary sources of EPA and DHA available for vegans beyond sea greens, they must rely on the body’s natural ability to convert it” (Ref 12). (The problems with the body’s far-from-natural capacity to transform it were not shared– see these listed below).

2nd, it properly reports that the conversion of omega-3 right into EPA and also DHA is hindered by omega-6 “which is found in the highest quantities in wheat products, wholegrain foods and vegetable oils.” It does not define that this indicates that the foods most typically consumed by vegans are the ones that additionally harm the conversion of ALA right into EPA and also DHA. “With a diet rich in n-6 PUFA, conversion is reduced by 40 to 50%” (Ref 13).

The message was called: “Where do vegans get their omega-3?” and also it really did not offer a clear and also appropriate response. The only choice for vegans to obtain omega-3 in the kind that they require it (DHA and also EPA) is to eat algae. (Algae is the environment-friendly residue that you can see in an aquarium). The message stated sea eco-friendlies (additionally called edible algae), however it did not stress that vegans need to supplement with algae– normally taken as algae pills. The message suggested pumpkin seed oil, nuts and also seeds (particularly flax and also chia seeds), grew beans, squashes, veggies and also blueberries. These are resources of ALA, not DHA and also EPA. Similar to various other plant vs pet resources of nutrients, conversion is really bad, if it occurs in any way (Ref 14). Many researches locate a conversion price of much less than 10% and also some researches locate no conversion in any way (Ref 15).

The equilibrium of DHA and also EPA is crucial for wellness however the conversion of ALA to DHA and also EPA is not stabilized. “More specifically, most studies in humans have shown that whereas a certain, though restricted, conversion of high doses of ALA to EPA occurs, conversion to DHA is severely restricted” (Ref 16).

The human mind is roughly 60% fat (Ref 17) and also roughly 20% of that fat is DHA (Ref 18). As kept in mind over, the conversion to DHA is especially jeopardized. It ought to be anticipated that mind wellness will certainly be jeopardized as well (Ref 19).

Surprisingly, algae supplements have actually just been offered because the late 1970 s. Perhaps veganism has actually just been feasible because this moment (Ref 20). Amusingly, algae are animals as well! (Ref 21).

Healthy Protein

The healthy protein blog site amazed me. It ought to have described that healthy protein from plant foods is insufficient (it does not include all 9 necessary amino acids that the body can not make and also in the correct amounts), while healthy protein from pet foods is total. A beneficial post on a vegan website would certainly clarify just how plant foods can be integrated to supply necessary amino acids. Rather, this post was an advert for “Nutristrength pea protein”– a vegan healthy protein supplement.

If individuals doing Veganuary acquire this pea healthy protein item, will this supply all that they require? I could not see any type of cases on the Nutristrength website that their vegan items would certainly supply total healthy protein. I did some basic study, for that reason, and also located a well-researched and also written message, which laid out the Globe Wellness Organisation Crucial Amino Acid referrals per 100 g of healthy protein and also per kg of body mass (Ref 22). The message balanced 8 resources of pea healthy protein– 2 from clinical documents and also 6 from maker cases. The outcomes were that pea healthy protein was an appropriate service provider of 8 of the Crucial Amino Acids, per 100 g of healthy protein, however that it lacked Methionine.

The message took place to analyze just how much pea healthy protein an 80 kg individual would certainly require to eat to satisfy their Crucial Amino Acids demands. The final thought was that “we should have around 0.7g of protein per kg of body weight, an 80kg person should eat around 60g of protein per day. So we’re 17g over our recommended dietary intake.” i.e. since pea healthy protein is a reasonably ineffective service provider of healthy protein, individuals would certainly go beyond the general healthy protein consumption demands while attempting to satisfy the Crucial Amino Acid demands. This isn’t a huge bargain, as healthy protein consumption can be 1g of healthy protein per kg of weight and also still be healthy and balanced, however pea healthy protein is still lacking in one Crucial Amino Acid and also the blog site would certainly have been much much better had it described just how to obtain total healthy protein from integrating plant foods.

Selenium

The whole selenium post states: “Selenium is an essential trace element that plays a key role in helping the immune system and preventing damage to cells and tissue. In some countries, the UK included, selenium levels in the soil are very low. Plants get selenium from the soil, and so the levels of selenium available in the soil will affect how much is available in plant-based foods. Brazil nuts are a brilliant source of selenium. Just one a day can provide all your needs, or you can make sure you get some via a supplement” (Ref 23).

Consume a brazil nut a day or supplement– I concur.

Zinc

The whole zinc message is: “Zinc helps our body grow new cells, promotes healing and aids with processing carbohydrates. Good sources of zinc include legumes, nuts, seeds and oats, leafy green vegetables, and sprouted seeds and beans” (Ref 24).

The message does not state that a 280 g steak would certainly supply your whole suggested everyday zinc consumption (Ref 25). The message does not state that vegans had the most affordable consumption of zinc when 65,000 meat-eater, fish-eaters, vegetarians and also vegans were contrasted in a UK mate of the European Possible Examination right into Cancer Cells (Ref 26). The message does not state that plant foods abundant in zinc, such as beans, entire grains, nuts, and also seeds, are additionally high in phytic acid, a prevention of zinc bioavailability (Ref 27). Zinc is therefore an additional nutrient most likely to be of issue in a vegan diet plan (as are calcium and also choline which were not attended to).

Supplements

There were 2 post in the wellness area concerning supplements. One, which was called “Don’t vegans need to take several supplements to stay healthy?” claimed “No. All the nutrients you need – with perhaps one exception – can be found easily and plentifully in a vegan diet. That one exception is Vitamin B12” (Ref 28).

This is not real, as we have actually revealed over, and also as is confessed in other places on the Veganuary website.

Having claimed that B12 is the only concern, the last sentence of this message was: “As for all those other vitamins, minerals and nutrients, you’ll find them aplenty if you eat a varied vegan diet. Take a look at Dr Michael Greger’s Daily Dozen chart to guide you as to what else we should be eating for optimum nutrition.”

This is not real. I evaluated Greger’s Daily Lots in this message (Ref 29). Greger advanced the optimum vegan diet plan in his Daily Lots diet plan. It had no B12, no retinol, no D3, no heme iron, and also no omega-3 in the appropriate kind. It was additionally lacking in calcium, iron general and also zinc (iodine would certainly have wanted as well– my nourishment examination device really did not consist of iodine). Which’s with the very best vegan diet plan that of the globe’s leading vegans can make.

The 2nd message on supplements attended message by a supplement vendor (Ref 30). This was called “How to supplement on a vegan diet” and also it suggested D3, B12, calcium, zinc, iodine, and also omega-3. That’s profitable, however much more truthful.

The Veganuary press pack

The Veganuary press pack on Veganuary.com had lots of statistics and also information from Veganuary 2019 (Ref 31). The sex split of individuals that registered for Veganuary was 87% woman and also 11% man. No description was provided for that not building up. A distressing 3% were aged 13-17; 22% were aged 18-24; 28% were aged 25-34; 21% were aged 35-44; 17% were aged 45-54 and also 9% mored than the age of55 The diet plan of individuals that registered to Veganuary was reported as 44% omnivore, 23% vegan, 17% vegetarian and also 16% pescatarian. Practically a quarter of individuals that registered for Veganuary were currently vegan!

Although that the top factor that individuals offered for doing Veganuary was “health”, the current news release was everything about pets and also the earth, without any reference of wellness advantages (Ref 32). Possibly that’s since there aren’t any type of. There are simply problems concerning the nutrients that are normally located in pet foods: total healthy protein; necessary fats; retinol; B12; D3, heme iron and so on

Quickly, however, for efficiency, Veganuary does not assist the earth, as a vegan globe would certainly remove the component of the food web that shields and also invigorates topsoil (ruminants– which supply meat and also milk items) (Ref 33). It would certainly take however a couple of periods in a vegan globe to accomplish desertification of locations that presently supply food. Exactly how plant foods would certainly after that feed the earth, I understand not. Exactly how much can hydroponics go? When it comes to the pets, there would certainly be no, or exceptionally couple of, cows, lamb, pigs, poultries, goats etc in a vegan globe (farmers do not maintain family pets). Residential pet cats would certainly require to massacre birds, bunnies, computer mice and also voles or deprive to fatality. Multiples of countless pets would certainly still pass away, if we had the ability to proceed plant farming, as area pets and also birds have no opportunity of preventing incorporate farmers (Ref 34). As well as the number of fish would certainly pass away since we would certainly consumed every one of their food i.e. algae?

The lower line

I was contemplating the reality that little damage can be done doing Veganuary for simply a month and also questioning just how to shut this message when I occurred to capture a meeting on BBC morning meal on fourth January2020 The founders of Veganuary were being talked to. One was Jane Land (that has actually been vegan for 7 years). The various other was Ursula Philpot– a dietitian. Philpot was inquired about the wellness element of doing Veganuary and also her reply consisted of these words: “Just doing it for a month, you’re not going to run into problems really – even if you eat a pretty poor diet. But, longer than that, it has to be fairly well planned… There are gaps in the diet – things like iron, B12, vitamin D, omega-3 fats.”

And Also there you have it. From among the creators of the Veganuary project. Change words intended with supplemented and also we have contract.

Individuals advertising a vegan diet plan– for any type of size of time– are not being truthful unless they inform you what you need to supplement and also the major effects of refraining this. Allow’s run out unethical declarations that a vegan diet plan is nutritionally sufficient– “oh – but you need to get all of these nutrients from supplements” in the fine print. We require marketers of a vegan diet plan to be in advance concerning what a vegan diet plan does not have– every single time they discuss it– and also what you require to supplement to offset these numerous shortages. They could such as to include that you need to after that really hope or hope that supplements are like the nutrients located normally in what we have actually progressed to consume.

A healthy and balanced diet plan offers the nutrients that we require. A healthy and balanced diet plan does not call for supplements. A vegan diet plan calls for supplements. De facto, a vegan diet plan is not healthy and balanced.

Referrals
Ref 1: https://www.zoeharcombe.com/2019/02/is-a-vegan-diet-safe-for-infants-and-children/
Ref 2: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamins-and-minerals/vitamin-a/
Ref 3: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/vitamin-a-in-a-vegan-diet
Ref 4: “The accepted 6:1 equivalency of beta-carotene to preformed vitamin A must be challenged and re-examined in the context of dietary plants.” Solomons, N. W. and also J. Bulux. “Plant sources of provitamin A and human nutriture.” Nourishment Testimonial, July 1993
Ref 5: Guangwen Flavor. Bioconversion of nutritional provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A in people. American Journal of CLinical Nourishment. (2010) (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854912/)
Ref 6: Sally Fallon and also Mary G. Enig, “Vitamin A”, (March 2002).
Ref 7: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/vitamin-b12-vegan-diet
Ref 8: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/vitamin-d-vegan-diet
Ref 9: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/iodine-vegan
Ref 10: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/iron-vegan-diet
Ref 11: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iodine-HealthProfessional/
Ref 12: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/where-do-vegans-get-their-omega-3
Ref 13: Gerster. Can grownups effectively transform alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and also docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3)? Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9637947
Ref 14: Gerster. Can grownups effectively transform alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and also docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3)? Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9637947
Ref 15: Cholewski et al. A Thorough Testimonial of Chemistry, Resources and also Bioavailability of Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Nutrients.2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267444/
Ref 16: Gerster. Can grownups effectively transform alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and also docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3)? Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9637947
Ref 17: Chang et al. Crucial fats and also human mind. Acta Neurol Taiwan.2009 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20329590
Ref 18: https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/diagnosis-diet/201903/the-brain-needs-animal-fat
Ref 19: Joanne Bradbury. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Old Nutrient for the Modern Human Being Mind. Nutrients.2011 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257695/)
Ref 20: https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-923/blue-green-algae
Ref 21: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070619182508.htm
Ref 22: https://www.brightaroundthecorner.com/diet/is-pea-protein-complete/
Ref 23: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/selenium
Ref 24: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/zinc-vegan-diet
Ref 25: https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/beef-products/7493/0
Ref 26: Davey et al. EPIC-Oxford: way of living features and also nutrient consumptions in an associate of 33 883 meat-eaters and also 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK. Public Wellness Nourishment.2003 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12740075)
Ref 27: Harland BF, Oberleas D. Phytate in foods. Globe Rev Nutr Diet Plan 1987;52: 235–59
Ref 28: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/vegans-supplements-healthy
Ref 29: https://www.zoeharcombe.com/2018/01/food-to-help-you-live-longer/
Ref 30: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/how-to-supplement-on-a-vegan-diet-guest-post-from-together
Ref 31: https://uk.veganuary.com/press
Ref 32: https://uk.veganuary.com/blog/statistics-show-the-positive-impact-of-trying-vegan-this-january
Ref 33: https://www.zoeharcombe.com/2017/05/red-meat-human-and-planet-health/
Ref 34: Fischer and also Lamey. Area Fatalities in Plant Farming. Journal of Agricultural and also Environmental Ethics. (2018). https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10806-018-9733-8